Understanding higher education experiences of care-experienced young people

Understanding the higher education experiences of care-experienced young people in Wales

It is widely known that care experienced young people in Wales and the UK more widely experience poorer outcomes in a wide range of factors than their peers who do not have experience of social care. These factors include health, poverty and early pregnancy, as well as education. As a result of educational research such as the Diamond Review, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are providing more support to care leavers in order to improve their access to university. However, despite a greater understanding of the barriers that this group face in continuing their education to university level, there has been little evidence of whether this support is effective.

This research project aims to understand university support and interventions in Wales that target care experienced young people – and assess the effectiveness of these support systems and interventions. These findings, along with data regarding numbers of care leavers attending Welsh universities, will be used to develop a model of best practice and practical guidance for care experienced young people and the people and organisations who support them in their education. Importantly, the research aims to understand and give voice to the experiences of care experienced young people who have been through the process of making decisions about their continued education, and we are looking for care experienced participants aged 14+ to take part and share their experiences with us.

If any young people you care for or work with might be interested in taking part, please get in touch. Participation can take the form of an interview or focus group, something more creative, or filling out an online questionnaire. All young people who take part in an interview or focus group, or make something creative, will receive an Amazon or Love2Shop voucher to say thank you for their time and input. For more details see the project information summary for young people and contact:

Hannah Bayfield
CASCADE, Cardiff University

The Coronavirus (COVID 19) pandemic: Experiences and lessons for the future

The Coronavirus (COVID 19) Pandemic: Young People leaving care and practitioners share their experiences and lessons for the future

The COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing lockdown has had a major impact across the world, with a disproportional impact on the poorest and most vulnerable people in society. This research study was designed to contribute to the emerging evidence base exploring both the receipt and delivery of social care support during this period.

The research study was funded by Voices from Care Cymru and CASCADE: Children’s Social Care Research and Development Centre. It offered a platform for the views of 21 care experienced young who provided vivid and detailed accounts of their experiences of lockdown. The inclusion of a professional survey with 23 participants enabled consideration of local initiatives providing a valuable backdrop for analysis of young people’s accounts. The study therefore provides important learning for policy makers, social care managers and front-line practitioners who work with care experienced young people and other vulnerable groups.

Encouragingly, the study revealed positive attempts to adapt to the unprecedented working conditions. It was noteworthy that the professionals who responded to our survey were positive about the support that they had provided to care leavers. Efforts to maintain communication with young people, combat loneliness, isolation and boredom, as well as ensure access to resources demonstrated good practice. However, it was noted that efforts to respond to the needs of young people were constrained by the absence of additional funding.

The perspectives of young people sometimes stood in sharp contrast to those of professionals and concerns remain about parity of support within and across areas, and the alignment between support needs and available provision. Our findings did not suggest consultation and inclusion of young people in decision making about new ways of working, and the focus appeared to be on immediate and short-term crisis needs, as opposed to transition planning or taking a rights-based approach. Of particular concern were reports of young people anxious about basic provisions, living in inappropriate accommodation and struggling with absence of mental health support.

However, despite these issues young people valued contact from social workers and social care professionals and positioned this as essential in the COVID-19 pandemic, as illustrated in this poem from one of the care experienced young people who participated in the study.

Times have changed, time is passing,
But our need for you to care is not lapsing,
We may whinge and shout and say we don’t want,
But we do, we really want you to.
We are isolated, changed and really not sure,
We need that face, the one we say we dislike
we need those texts that we never reply to,
We need the language that you share, they hey,
`how are you doing, I am still here’,
This is the real language that cares, the language we need,
The language which shows us not everything has changed,
The language that comforts us, like a weird aunt would send
Which would make us cringe, and smile,
A smile which means something hasn’t changed
-the language you use to show us you care.

You can also watch the Care Leavers and Coronavirus film about the key findings:

We would be pleased to hear from you with any feedback, comments, or suggestions:

Louise Roberts, School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University RobertsL18@cardiff.ac.uk @DrLouiseRoberts


Roberts, L., Rees, A., Bayfield, H., Corliss, C., Diaz, C., Mannay, D. and Vaughan, R. 2020. Young people leaving care, practitioners, and the coronavirus (COVID 19) pandemic: experiences, support, and lessons for the future. Cardiff: Cardiff University.

‘A Portrait of Care’: Combating the negative stereotypes people have about children in care

‘A Portrait of Care’ is a collaboration with the University of Southampton, Widening Participation Department. The project will form an online exhibition via Instagram using self-portraiture as a way to combat the negative stereotypes people have about children in care. The project invites those with care experience and those that work in or with the care community to take part and it will feature in the National Care Leavers Week # NCLW2020 between 26 October and 1 November 2020.

Each Instagram post featured in ‘A Portrait of Care’ will have three frames:

  • A selfie or representation of self, for example an avatar
  • Something about the participant now (present)
  • Reveal of ‘care’ role/experience, for example, why participant chose to take part in the project? Or what the participant’s role in the care system is now?

People are free to define themselves and they can define their identity by taking their photograph and by writing whatever it is they want to write about themselves. They do not have to reveal their care status.

This project invites care experienced people, social workers, kinship or foster carers, residential care workers, teachers, charities, designated safeguarding leads, virtual school staff, social care researchers or anyone in the care community, to submit entries for the exhibition as a way to bring together professionals and those with care experience as part of #NCLW2020

Due to the negative connotations associated with being ‘looked-after’, almost every care experienced person comes into contact with discrimination at one point in their lives because of their background. By using portraits, we would hope to de-stigmatise the experience of care to improve perceptions and general public awareness. You cannot tell a person’s care experience from a photograph!

We have launched the event on Instagram/Twitter/private care experience groups and promote leading up to and during #NCLW2020 and continue beyond that until end of November.

We will hold a draw among the first 30 people who participate. The 10 ‘winners’ will have their portrait drawn by a Care Experienced artist. Additionally, every care experienced person who takes part will receive a £5 Amazon voucher.

If you are interested in participating in ‘A Portrait of Care’, contact Rosie Canning at rc11g14@soton.ac.uk, or:

Online services, mental health & wellbeing of the care-experienced

Online services and the mental health and wellbeing of care-experienced children and young people

Good mental health and wellbeing is important particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. With the new restrictions around social distancing, there has been a move to deliver mental health services online. However, as yet, we do not know the best ways to develop online services, or how to successfully adapt programmes that have been delivered in person to now be delivered online. Research is required to understand how interventions can transition to online or blended (a mixture of face-to-face and online) delivery, what models are perceived to work most effectively, and which approaches warrant additional development, adaptation, and evaluation.

This new study funded by the TRIUMPH network aims to explore how to best develop online programmes for care-experienced young people. A team from Cardiff University and Voices from Care Cymru are working with The Fostering Network in Wales to improve online services to better support mental health and wellbeing.

We will interview and run consultations groups with care-experienced young people, foster carers, and social care professionals to explore their experiences of online programmes and understand what they want from online services. This will help us to consider the best way to develop or adapt services and discover what types of programmes participants would like to see in the future.

The research findings will enable us to develop a set of guidance and principles to support policymakers, practitioners, and researchers in developing and or adapting programmes for delivery online. If you are a care-experienced young person, foster carer or practitioner and you would like to contribute to developing online services to support mental health and wellbeing please contact us to register your interest.

Rhiannon Evans
DECIPHer (Centre for Development, Evaluation, Complexity and Implementation in Public Health Improvement), Cardiff University

Dawn Mannay
School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University

Education during COVID-19: Experiences of the fostering sector

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic we have heard how fostering households across the UK quickly adapted to support children in these unprecedented times. Many foster carers assumed additional responsibilities and roles overnight: supporting children with home learning, supervising virtual contact with birth families in their own home, facilitating virtual social worker visits as well as all their usual fostering duties and responsibilities.

Lockdown has had a significant impact on fostering households. While some foster carers have reported an increase in challenging behaviour and concerns about the wellbeing of children, some fostering families have seen benefits of children being in one place for a sustained period of time and they have seen children feeling settled and calm.

Survey results
Children and young people’s views on education during the pandemic

To understand more about fostered children’s experiences of education during the pandemic we launched a rapid response survey for foster carers and fostering services across the UK.

The survey received 487 foster carer responses representing 870 fostered children and young people from across the UK. We received 48 responses from fostering service members of staff. In addition, we were able to gather the thoughts and feelings of a small group of children and young people about their experiences of education and thoughts about returning to school.

The evidence shows that the vast majority of children in foster care have been not attending educational settings and have received very different offers and experiences of education throughout the coronavirus pandemic. While some have thrived from more one to one support and the removal of some external pressures, others have experienced increased anxiety and other mental health problems and have been excluded before being given the chance to attend educational provisions. The experience of educating during lockdown has also brought to the fore the need for more individualised education plans for looked after children.

Survey results
Children and young people’s views on transitioning back to their education providers

The survey results have helped provide an understanding about both the educational experience of fostered children during lockdown and their needs as they transition back to school. To find out more about this survey and the key findings please see the full report.

Charlotte Wooders: Charlotte.Wooders@fostering.net
Twitter: The Fostering Network in Wales

What role does agency play in shaping the educational journeys of ‘older’ care-experienced adults?

This blog post outlines key findings from an article Eavan published with her PhD supervisor, Professor Robbie Gilligan, drawing on her PhD research exploring the educational pathways of care-experienced adults in Ireland. The article explores how the concept of agency can provide unique insights into the ways that the educational journeys of adults with care experience have been shaped over time.

Research in the area of education and care tends to underutilise social theory. In this paper we begin to address this gap by drawing on the life course conceptualisation of agency. This assumes that we are not passive in shaping our life course, rather that we make choices, actions and decisions that shape our lives and these actions are taken within systems of opportunities and constraints. The life course conceptualisation of agency also considers the impact of the passing of time over the life course.

I interviewed 11 women and seven men (aged 24 to 36) for this study and asked them to tell me about their journey through education from their earliest memory to the present day. I found five main themes within their responses related to how agency influenced educational journeys over time:

1) Big and small acts of agency influence educational journeys. Bigger agentic actions were more apparent (e.g. leaving school early). Smaller, more ‘low key’ acts of agency (e.g. sourcing information on home schooling options) were more subtle and often the impact of these actions was not apparent until later on in participant lives.

2) Agentic actions have a positive and negative impact on educational journeys. Importantly, actions that may initially have a negative impact (e.g. skipping school for extended periods due to severe bullying) can sometimes open a space for other actions (potentially positive) to take place over time (e.g. pursuing further education having received poor final exam results due to skipping school).

3) Agency is visible in intentional actions focused on long-term goals and reactive actions focused on short-term concerns. A focus on long-term goals emerged for many study participants in their late teens, early twenties, and beyond. Several people also spoke of having difficulty with long-term planning due to instability and challenges in their home lives.

4) Agency and the passage of time are inextricably linked. For many people, the wider impact of an action at one point in time was not visible until later and in all cases the passage of time led to shifts and changes in individual pathways.

5) Context and structure impact individual agency over time. For example, i) being in care as influencing participant motivation both positively and negatively; and ii) Coming into care as both constraining and supporting education.

This study shows how a focus on agency can shine new light on the educational pathways of people with care experience from a life course perspective. It also highlights the value of drawing on social theory to better understand key issues in relation to education and life in care. Finally, it reminds us that agency in relation to education can be exercised from childhood to late adulthood and of the ongoing potential for new beginnings and new opportunities in relation to education (and arguably other areas of life). Educational journeys can be restarted at any point in the life course given the right supports and circumstances.

Email Eavan 

Twitter: @eavanrb

Access Eavan’s PhD thesis.


Brady, E. & Gilligan, R. (2019). The Role of Agency in Shaping the Educational Journeys of Care‐experienced Adults: Insights from a Life Course Study of Education and Care. Children & Society. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/chso.12361.

You may also be interested in these related blogs:

Do educational outcomes for people with care experience get better over time?
July 9, 2019 Eavan Brady, School of Social Work and Social Policy – Trinity College Dublin 

Transition from care to university: a case study
May 21, 2019 Gemma Allnatt 

The educational experiences of children in care 
September 12, 2018 – Dr Karen Kenny 

Care leavers talking about education
December 12, 2018 – Elaine Matchett 

Exploring reasons Care Leavers choose not to access higher education

Exploring the reasons why Care Leavers choose not to access higher education

Government attitudes towards increasing support for care leavers have been moving in a positive direction during the last decade. However, many barriers remain for care-experienced young people transitioning to adulthood. The past few years have seen an ongoing policy push towards encouraging care leavers to engage in higher education with the promise of additional bursaries and support until age 25, which until recently was limited to those attending university.

Research suggests that only 6% of 19-21-year-old care-leavers are in higher education in England during the 2018-19 academic-year (Department for Education 2019) although the position in Wales is less clear (Allnatt 2019). A common theme arising is the lack of awareness among care leavers of their legal entitlements or available support (HM Government 2016). This suggests that a barrier in care-leavers attending university could be a lack of awareness of the support available.

As part of a postgraduate research study, my survey aims to explore policy provisions and support networks available for care-experienced young people in England and Wales who do not go on to study at university.

I would like to find out how care-leavers feel about the support they received in deciding whether to attend university, how this directly impacted their decision, and how they think this could have been improved, for both themselves and for future care-leavers. It is essential that care-leavers are given sufficient information to make meaningful and informed life choices, particularly given the current rhetoric in encouraging care leavers to engage in higher education.

Samantha O’Rourke
Cardiff University


Allnatt, G. 2019. Transitions from care to higher education: A case study of a young person’s journey. In D. Mannay, A. Rees and L. Roberts (eds.), Children and Young People ‘Looked After’? Education, Intervention and the Everyday Culture of Care in Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Department for Education. 2019. Children looked after in England (including adoption), year ending 31 March 2019. (accessed 05/05/2020) HM

Government. 2016. Keep On Caring: Supporting Young People from Care to Independence. (accessed 05/05/2020)

Leicestershire Cares & the BBC raise awareness for lockdown care-experienced young people

Throughout the Coronavirus pandemic, Leicestershire Cares’ leaving care team has been working closely with the care-experienced young people we support to help them share their experiences of social distancing and the national lockdown.

The videos and podcasts produced by our Voices project has received local and national attention. On Wednesday 15 April, BBC East Midlands Today interviewed Casey, one of the CEYP on our Voices project, and Jacob, our Voices Development Officer, to explore how care leavers are coping with the lockdown.

This was an important opportunity to have the voices of care experienced people heard and raise awareness of how challenging the current situation is for young people without the family support networks many take for granted. These young people are showing great resilience in the face of adversity, and Casey described how difficult it can be to stay positive in the current situation.

On 12 April, Casey was also interviewed by Ashley John-Baptiste, a BBC journalist who is also care experienced, alongside Diana, another care experienced young person that Leicestershire Cares supports, to talk about the challenges they are facing during the national lockdown. Watch their conversation with Ashley.

Leicestershire Cares continues to support care experienced young people, offering a range of online and remote support including mental health and wellbeing, employability and social activities. We will also continue to create opportunities for care experienced young people to connect with each other and share their experiences during the coronavirus pandemic.

For more information about our Voices project contact:

Find out how we work with care-experienced young people. For advice on dealing with isolation during the COVID-19 lockdown, visit our coronavirus page. This blog was originally published at Leicestershirecares.co.uk.

Protecting vulnerable children while social distancing

It seems inevitable that demand for statutory child protection services will increase as people are asked to stay inside together. How do you keep children, young people, parents and social workers safe at a time when carrying out home visits would almost inevitably breach social distancing rules implemented by the government?

There are currently over 52,000 children subject to a child protection plan in England – these children are deemed by the state to be at risk of significant harm. Statutory guidance states that social workers must visit these children and their parents on a regular basis. In most Local Authorities this is fortnightly.

Parents of vulnerable children still have the option for their children to attend school or nursery but early evidence says this is rarely happening. If families are already struggling, being confined to their home for an extra 30 hours a week will inevitably add pressure.

For social workers with already heavy caseloads then, it seems the stresses on the system caused by the Covid-19 pandemic means they will only have to work even harder.And, given government guidelines on social distancing, they’ll have to find a different way of working. Technology is changing the way all of our working lives are enabled currently, and it might yet provide solutions for social work.

But could an increased use of video conferencing, the use of which has mushroomed under lockdown, expose vulnerabilities to the social work system in terms of confidentiality and security? In this context, Covid-19 has presented policy makers, politicians, Local Authority senior managers and frontline social workers with very serious ethical issues.

What are the risks to frontline social workers?

The government guidance is for us all to stay two metres apart, but in most normal size houses and flats this would be difficult. If I think of my own domestic situation; what if we were required to have a visit from a social worker?

We are a family of five, with two small children. My four-year-old is a ball of energy, who at any moment might decide to run from one room to another; it would be pretty challenging trying to remain at a distance of two metres from him. He’s also not so proficient in manners just yet – he might shout (and therefore emit tiny globules of saliva out into the world) or sneeze without putting his hand over his mouth. There is scant information to be had about the possibilities of children being carriers of the virus but what if he is? How would a visitor to our house protect themselves from the dangers of the current pandemic?

There’s also the size of the home that a social worker might visit to consider. Social distancing would be particularly difficult in smaller houses and flats.

The government has not issued specific guidance about home visits for social workers, saying only that local authorities should decide for themselves, taking into consideration Public Health England’s advice about social distancing.

New Department for Education (DfE) guidance released last week states that when “social workers and other staff are undertaking home visits, personal protective equipment (PPE) is not required unless the people being visited are symptomatic of Coronavirus (COVID 19) or have a confirmed diagnosis of Coronavirus (COVID 19)”.

However Official World Health Organisation (WHO) advice states that it is “possible to catch COVID-19 from someone who has, for example, just a mild cough and does not feel ill”. According to WHO therefore, there is a risk that family members could infect social workers or vice versa during home visits. This is clearly very worrying for social workers and other key professionals who carry out home visits as well as for the families they are visiting. Local Authorities owe a duty of care to their social workers, but in the current circumstances, how can they ensure social workers are safe when carrying out home visits? Furthermore, social work values highlight that we must do no harm as a starting point. In the current situation how can we carry out home visits safely when we may be asymptomatic and be visiting families who we could potentially infect?

Having PPE is top of a list of concerns in a survey the British Association of Social Workers (BASW) is running, which has seen responses from more than 1000 practitioners. When I asked a social worker what PPE was available recently, she answered ‘hand sanitiser’. It seems nationally there is a major shortage of PPE equipment for social workers.

The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) provides further challenges for social workers. There are two issues with this – availability in a time of growing demand and the effect it might have on the families we visit.

Even if Local Authorities could source proper PPE that could offer the most comprehensive protection – perhaps perspex face coverings, plastic aprons and plastic gloves, how would children and parents feel about visitors turning up looking like surgeons?

Clearly this is going to be make it very difficult for social workers to build up trusting social workers with both parents and children, particularly when historically families have often reluctant to trust social workers.

Can technology help?

Those white-collar workers not already familiar with video conferencing apps before the current pandemic have had to quickly familiarise themselves with the available technology in the last two weeks. Could it also offer solutions for social work?

Some clear guidelines are certainly called for. Further challenges for social workers, many of whom are working from home, are that they will be expected by Local Authorities to set boundaries with their family members to avoid the real risk of children, partners or flatmates being able to hear or see confidential information relating to children at risk of significant harm.

Some social workers may have rooms that can be set aside for such purposes at defined times, but this will obviously be more difficult for those social workers living in smaller accommodation.

In terms of the software itself, WhatsApp is the only platform that has been widely publicised as encrypted, meaning the video and audio data remains secure from third party monitoring.

Optimised as it is for mobile use, and therefore constricted by the size of phone screens, the platform is not an ideal choice for group calls. However, it has been reported as being helpful as a means for parents and children to communicate with social workers to (for example) show them around the house if that is deemed necessary.

Plenty of workers newly adapting to working from home have gotten acquainted with Zoom but with popularity comes scrutiny – and the security of Zoom has been called into question.

There is also the new phenomenon of Zoom bombing, where third parties hack emails to find joining details and invade meetings to be disruptive. It is all a new challenge for our IT departments.

There are some early indications of really interesting and innovative practice, including having child protection conferences via Skype with the parents present in Local Authority offices.

Social workers are used to being creative in order to ensure children and parents rights (alongside their own safety) is maintained. It is therefore perfectly possible that new technology will further enable such creativity in allowing social workers to build productive relationships with children and parents, but the challenges must not be underestimated.

Currently the government are putting a lot of responsibility on Local Authorities to keep children safe in very difficult circumstances but there seems very little clear guidance on how they should do this.

The government needs to act fast to provide Local Authorities with extra funding and clear guidance as to how they should keep vulnerable children safe whilst ensuring staff and families are protected from infection of COVID-19.

Decision Making in Child and Family Social Work by Clive Diaz is available on the Policy Press website. Available for pre-order for £19.19.

Clive Diaz – Cardiff University



This blog was originally published by Policy Press.

Engaging young people in linguistic research and documentation

I am a linguist who works on speech production (how people talk) and speech perception (how people listen). In October 2019 I was invited to talk at a ‘Linguistics in The Pub’ event in Melbourne, Australia (where I am from). The topic was Engaging young people in linguistic research and documentation, something I am involved in but not as my main activity. I had some ideas about what worked and didn’t work for me, in the Australian context, but I decided to do an informal survey with researchers around the world who were kind enough to offer their opinions on this topic. I received numerous responses, especially relating to research and documentation outcomes, as well as advice surrounding school and technology in particular.

I am sharing these ideas with you, and there are also references further below – one from each of the contributors to my survey.

The main points that came across were:

Be sensitive to the audience.

Be flexible and engaged yourself to get the best out of the people you want to work with.

Take into account their age and their situation.

The following sections, more specifically describing “what works” and “what doesn’t work”, are of course tendencies and may not be suitable in all contexts.

What works

Be authentic and show who you are



Involving young people in the research design

Let them know that you know that they have knowledge

Establishing contact before experiments / recording

Be involved in activities they like, where feasible

Be involved in “their world” – engage with what interests them

Offer a range of options for participation, and a range of options for dissemination (go beyond academic articles – for example visual media, artworks, etc).

Be trustworthy

For some young people – school (you can find them there, can tie into literacy)

What doesn’t work

For some young people – school. Marginalised youth will tend not to engage with institutions for example.

Acting like their parents

In language documentation situations, don’t do what someone can do themselves. Sit back and let them do it!

Not pitching activities appropriately

In the middle

Sometimes it is important to gauge responses from elders and the wider community. This depends on the cultural context.

View an example of collaborative work I have done. There are some beautiful posters made with young people who produced most of the artwork, as well as collaboration with elders and some other adults who worked with us on the language.

My thanks to the people listed below (mostly, but not solely, linguists) for answering questions about working with young people and helping me make the above recommendations. There are a few references listed that will give an insight into their work – this is by no means exhaustive.

John Mansfield (Murinpatha youth)

University of Melbourne

Mansifeld, J. (2018). ‘Murinpatha personhood, other humans and contemporary youth’. In D. Austin-Broos & F. Merlan (Eds.) People and Change in Indigenous Australia. 117-129. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Felicity Meakins (Gurindji Kriol)

University of Queensland

Meakins, F. (2011) Case-marking in contact: The development and function of case morphology in Gurindji Kriol. John Benjamins.

Carmel O’Shannesy (Light Warlpiri) ANU

O’Shannessy, C. (2005). Light Warlpiri: A new language. Australian Journal of Linguistics. 25 (1): 31-57.

Ake Nicholls (Cook Islands Maori)

Massey University Auckland

Lingthusiasm Pop culture in Cook islands Maori – Interview with Ake Nichols (episode number 31)

(many associated references and resources available via podcast – highly recommended)

Catalina Torres Orjuela (Drehu youth)

University of Melbourne – see her publications at https://unimelb.academia.edu/CatalinaTorres

Penelope Eckert (Jocks and Burnouts in

Stanford University

Eckert, P. (1989) Jocks and Burnouts: social categories and identites in the high school. New York, NY, US: Teachers College Press.

Hanane Sarnou (Algerian youth)

Abdelhamin Inbadis University, Algeria

Sarnou, H. (2015). ‘ICTs use on linguistic change and identity’ Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences. 195: 850-855.

Nicoleta Bateman (Language article about middle school collaboration)

California State University San Marcos

Bateman, N. (2019). ‘Linguistics in middle school: incorporating linguistics into project-based learning’. Language. 95 (2): e300-e326.

Katie Drager (sociophonetics, NZ girls’ high school)

University of Hawai’i, Manoa

Drager, Katie (2015) Linguistic Variation, Identity Construction and Cognition. Berlin: Language Science Press. Open access – highly recommended!!

Dawn Mannay

Cardiff University, Wales

Mannay, D. (2016) “To understand what young people think, speak their language” The Conversation. Sept 7. (article 63556) http://theconversation.com/to-understand-what-young-people-think-speak-their-language-63556

Some other references

Linguistics Roadshow (online resources / survey) produced by the 2015 Linguistics Roadshow team (Katie Jepson, Jill Vaughan and Rosey Billington, mapping help from Lauren Gawne). https://lingroadshow.com;


McCulloch, G. & L. Gawne Lingthusiasm “Kids these days aren’t ruining language” (episode number 7).

Mendoza-Denton, N. (2008). Homegirls: Language and cultural practice among Latina youth gangs. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Debbie Loakes

University of Melbourne