Use of secure accommodation for welfare purposes in Wales

Secure accommodations are residential homes with approval to restrict the liberty of young people who are believed to be a serious risk to themselves or to others. Many young people are placed in secure accommodation for welfare reasons and there is little sign of this practice diminishing. This troubling situation is further complicated by a scarcity of secure placements in Wales which sees many young people being placed outside of Wales or having no bed in secure care due to a lack of availability.

At present there is little research evidence of what has led to this or what can be done to improve matters. To give better insight, a recent project commissioned by Social Care Wales and conducted by CASCADE at Cardiff University explored the experiences of young people from Wales prior to, during and following a referral to secure accommodation.

A recent webinar, presented by Dr Annie Williams (research lead) gave practitioners and managers an opportunity to hear about the study. The resources from the webinar are as follows:

Book launch: Critical Hospital Social Work Practice

New release

We are delighted to announce the newly launched book Critical Hospital Social Work Practice by our Cardiff University Social Sciences colleague, Dr Dan Burrows.

Critical Hospital Social Work Practice sheds light on the fast-paced, high pressure role of the hospital social worker. At a time of public concern over the state of the NHS and the needs of a growing older population, the hospital social worker’s job is more important than ever. Yet, it is poorly understood and often overlooked by policy makers, managers and other professionals.

Employing social theory to make sense of the contemporary context of health and social care, this book highlights the vital role played by social workers in planning complex hospital discharges. It provides an in-depth account of the activities of a typical hospital social work team in the UK, drawn from rigorous ethnographic fieldwork, and contrasts this with research evidence on hospital social work practices around the world. The author points towards exciting new directions for health-related social work and social work’s potential to develop critical gerontological practice.

This book, published by Routledge, will be useful to social work students and practitioners working in hospital settings and with older people in general. It will also be of significant value to policy makers and academics who are interested in developing innovative approaches to meeting the needs of the ageing population.

About the Author:

Daniel Burrows trained as a social worker at Cardiff University, where he and his future wife met. After seven years in practice, he moved over to teaching and completed his professional doctorate. He now lives in Cardiff with his wife and two sons and teaches on the MA Social Work at Cardiff University.

All you need is love? Reflection on relationships in the care system

During this time of pandemic, we reflect on, and are thankful for, the relationships we have with our family, guardians, friends and other important people in our lives. The desire for warmth and connection becomes much more apparent as we are unable to meet with many of our loved ones in our usual ways.

It brings us to reflect on our most recent ExChange Wales conference in November last year; ‘All you need is love? Reflection on relationships in the care system’, at The Village Hotel, Swansea. We were delighted to have Chris Dunn, Voices from Care Cymru and Dr Alyson Rees, Assistant Director of CASCADE as co-chairs of this event.

The opening address from Chris posed the question ‘What does love mean to you?’. Covering the importance and the power of the word ‘love’ and how, in many professional settings, it is sometimes an ‘uncomfortable’ word. Chris encouraged delegates to lean into this feeling ‘The care-experienced community are calling out for this, to feel loved’.

Linda Briheim-Crookall joined us from Coram Voice, talking about the Bright Spots programme, a partnership between Coram Voice, Oxford University and the Hadley Trust to help local authorities ensure that the views of care-experienced children and young people influence services and development. Bright Spots poses the central question ‘What makes life good?’. Linda pointed out that many of the important indicators identified by participants are linked to the concept of love; to trust and be trusted, pets, spaces that give belonging and friends.

Michael Arribas-Ayllon, Cardiff University delivered a passionate presentation about the era of the ‘Social Brain’. Michael talked about science vs myth when it comes to the resilience and plasticity of the brain. Michael put forward the case that current focus on Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE’s) is in conflict with what science tells us about the ability of the brain to adapt and to continue to develop into adulthood.

The weight given to ACE’s is now under scrutiny by some in the academic and social care community. Michael asks, ‘Are we subscribing to a view of biological fatalism?’. Is there no hope of recovery for people who have had adverse childhood experiences? Is it ever really too late?


Rebecca Jones & Bryn Morgan, Barnardo’s Cymru

Kinship care: Maintaining and strengthening family relationships for children, Lorna Stabler CASCADE

Gloria Kirwan from Maynooth University talked to us about the importance of the role of the Keyworker for care-experienced young people. The types of relationships are varied: some young people felt that their keyworker was a trusted and secure source of support; others felt that they [the keyworker] were ‘just in here to get paid’.

Gloria suggested looking at the expectations of both the key worker and the care-experienced young person, and that we should be guided by their needs. The final thought evoked a lot of feelings – will you be the ‘torch-bearer’ for the young people you work with?

Rosie Moore and Joanna McCreadie detailed the process and initial findings of Scotland’s Independent Care Review and in particular ‘Love’ as a key theme that emerged from it.

In response a specific LOVE work group was established as part of the review, centring around four main themes:

  • Empowering Staff & Professional Autonomy
  • Stability, Security & Relationships
  • Physical Touch
  • Developing confidence & comfort in the wider sector.

Rosie and Joanna demonstrated how Scotland is leading in thinking and progress for a better care system. The aim: ‘to make Scotland the best place in the world to grow up’. Visit Scotland’s Independent Care Review for further resources. Please note that we are unable to publish presentation due to sensitive materials.

ExChange Wales would like to thank our chairpersons, all presenters and delegates for taking the time to attend and contribute to this conference.

Talk with me: Speech, language & communication (SLC) delivery plan 2020-21

The Talk With Me: Speech, Language and Communication (SLC) Delivery Plan 2020-21 was published for consultation on 30 January 2020.

The delivery plan has been developed in consultation with the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) and the Flying Start SLC Clinical Excellence Network which has helped us identify the actions we need to take over the coming years.

This cross-government plan which includes Education, Health, and ‘Social Policy’, will lead to a more joined-up approach to engaging with families, and builds upon existing families and what works.

It consults on:

  • raising parental awareness of engaging with young children through SLC
  • identifying any SLC issues early and providing appropriate support
  • providing further SLC training within the childcare workforce
  • reviewing our policies and strategies

How to respond

Submit your comments by 23 April 2020, in any of the following ways:

  • Respond online
  • Submit an email: Download the response form, complete and return to
  • By post: Download the response form, complete and return to:
    Children and Families Division
    Communities and Tackling Poverty Directorate
    Welsh Government
    Cathays Park
    CF10 3NQ

If you would like to attend a consultation event taking place in either Swansea of Llandudo then please complete the below forms and return them to

Why don’t more care-experienced young people go to university?

University can be one of the most exciting times in a young person’s life; they have the prospect of studying something they are really interested in, meet new people, have new experiences and have a place to make those first adult steps of independence into the world. With all this on offer, why are care experienced young people significantly less likely to go to university and complete their degree than the general population (Jackson 2007)?

The exact numbers of care experienced young people going to university are unclear. Harrison (2017) suggests that the best estimate is that 6% of care-experienced young people (in England; under 21) are in university compared to 43% of their peers in the general population. The difference between the two groups is stark.

Knowing this, it is important to encourage care-experienced young people to attend university to reach their academic potential and access opportunities they are unlikely to have elsewhere. At present this is difficult as there many barriers, notably in the availability of support, encouragement and advice on the pathways to and through university.

One recognised setback is the way that despite the efforts of many social workers the abilities of this group of young people are negatively perceived by professionals and other authority figures in their lives. The impact of such low academic expectations can have negative lasting effects. However, research conducted by Mannay et al. (2015) showed that care experienced young people do express ambition and aspirations to succeed in education and to take up careers that require university level qualification.

So what hinders or helps care-leavers transitioning to, and within university? A doctoral study has explored this question using data from ‘Next Steps’, a study following the progress of young people from England at state or independent secondary schools which involves ‘15, 770 young people, 245 of whom were care-experienced.

As shown in Figure 1 the findings of this part of the wider study show that young people in care do aspire to go to university but think that their chances of gaining a place are much lower than those who have not been in care. Furthermore, although half of the care experienced young people say they would apply to university, a third felt that it was unlikely they would get a place. This compares poorly with the more than two thirds of those who have not been in care who intend to apply for a university place, and the much lower number who doubted they would achieve a place.

These significant differences between care and non care-experienced young people strongly suggest that being care experienced is linked to lower levels of aspiration to go to university and feelings of whether a place can be gained or not. Mannay et al. (2015) argued that these feelings could arise from a tendency for professionals and carers to dampen care-experienced young people’s aspirations. The pessimistic attitude has also been linked with the lack of knowledge around pathways to university for young people in care, thus denying them access to information that could help them decide whether they would like to attend university or not. The differing policies and arrangements local authorities have in place throughout the UK complicate this matter further.

Collectively, findings from the doctoral study increase concerns about the aspirations and progress of young people in care. These young people have the drive and intellectual capability to thrive in a university setting but are hindered by bureaucratic processes, negative attitudes and low expectations by those who care for them. All these issues need to be addressed to ensure equal opportunities to access university are available and taken. Being care-experienced shouldn’t limit a person’s prospects of attending University.

Gemma Allnatt is a Research Student at Cardiff University

National approach to statutory advocacy for children and young people in Wales (webinar)

This webinar was presented by Natalie Brimble from Tros Gynnal Plant.

The National Approach to Statutory Advocacy for children and young people in Wales was introduced in 2017. The National Approach model places a duty on Children’s Services staff to ensure all children and young people who became looked after, post 1 July 2017, and became part of child protection procedures, are receiving a service via a care and support plan.

Advocacy is promoting views, wishes and feelings, to ensure they are taken into account and acted upon during the decision making processes that affect a child’s life. The webinar provided a briefing on the National Approach, including the ‘Active Offer’ element, which ensures all children and young people who fall within the legislation are offered face-to-face meetings with their advocacy provider.

Natalie Brimble from Tros Gynnal Plant

The webinar began with an overview of advocacy and the different types of advocacy, and the role of an Independent Professional Advocate. It then detailed the policy element of the National Approach, the overarching principles, the linking elements and how it may link to your area of work.


Additional resources are available at:
TGP Cymru
Meic Helpline
National Standards and Outcomes Framework

Workshop report: The ‘Case of Ethics’, using creative methods for ethical research practice

On the 10th of September ExChange welcomed Dr Victoria Edwards and a practitioner workshop on the ‘Case of Ethics’: using creative methods for ethical research practice. The interactive workshop explored participants understanding of ethics in research, how Vicky approached this in her own research, the practicalities of using creative approaches in research and finally for participants to create their own ‘mini-case’.

The workshop began with two group activities. The first exploring what participants already knew about ethics in research, by considering what things are essential for an ethical encounter. Some of the topics discussed included, volunteering to take part, consent, understanding what would happen and power imbalances.

The second group activity involved defining what is meant by consent, confidentiality and anonymity. Participants were asked to consider when they became familiar with these terms and in what context. Discussions around this topic where generated when participants shared their ideas across the room in a ‘snowball fight’. Crumpling up their definitions on paper and throwing them to another table to be read out. Some of the key messages from this discussion highlighted that there can’t be an assumed understanding of these term especially when working with young people.

Wide-shot of ExChange workshop participants

Having set the scene, Vicky moved on to talk about her own research and how she approached ethics. Her study explored young people’s video game culture across two special schools, one a mainstream school where the young people were part of a nurture class and the other at a college. All the young people involved in her study had some level of additional learning requirements. The study itself used a range of creative methods including, doll creation, video production and t-shirt design as well as some more traditional methods such as a whole school survey and focus group workshop.

Close-up of workshop apparatus

When developing her ethical approach to research with this cohort of young people, Vicky drew on wider literature in this area including the work of Professor Emma Renold and Dr Dawn Mannay both Cardiff University researchers. She focused on creative methodologies where ethics are not an ‘add on’ to the process. It is with this in mind that the ‘Case of Ethics’ was invented. Using a second-hand vintage travelling salespersons suitcase with many different compartments, Vicky was able to fill it with objects to start conversations with young people about what they were getting involved with.

The objects included a voice changer, mask, tracing paper and audio recorder. Having the case in the room enabled the young people (and the researcher) to always be aware of the nature of consent and refer to any ideas that were discussed, touched and felt when introducing the work. This was also an engaging and fun way to explain to participants why she was recording information and what would happen to it.

Close-up of workshop participant (hands)

Examples of how the objects reflected conversations about consent and the research;

Voices changer: Do you enjoy talking? Who will hear your voices? Why do we alter voices? What is anonymity?

Masks: Why do we protect your identity? What happened to the information collected about you?

Tracing paper: Why would we want to obscure an imagine in a research project? Where are images kept? Why won’t researchers identify your school.

Audio recorder: Why is your voice being recorded? Am I allowed to stop the recording? How do I feel about being recorded?

Most children loved using tactile materials but other didn’t like them at all – what works for one person can be very different for another. The key was showing understanding and being open to discussions. As an example, using the case highlighted the wished of one of the young people named Terry. Terry had a physical reaction to the felt in the case, he jumped back from the table saying, ‘I can’t touch that’. Whilst most of the young people really enjoyed playing with the voice changer Terry though it was horrible. These reactions allowed Vicky to talk to Terry about how he felt about being recorded and taking part in certain activities. She found out that he was fine with recording and transcribing the interview but didn’t want to hear it back, and later on he didn’t want to have his voice included in any video work. Vicky highlights that discussing these issues with objects adds real meaning than merely trying to explain the process may miss.

Next it was time for workshop participants to start thinking about a project they were working on and coming up with some objects to put into their own mini-case of ethics. Participants were tasked to draw or write on a piece of paper an object/objects that could be used to introduce their project or activity. This was put into their mini-case and shared with the person next to them. From here their partner would spend some time coming up with some questions based on the object and thinking about what the project might be about. This was an opportunity for participants to try out developing a creative representation related to their project and start reflecting on how things are introduced or explained. Vicky also encouraged participants to consider how it might feel be exploring projects and activities in this way.

Finally, the workshop concluded with discussions around the barriers to ethical encounters and coming up with solutions. Some of the discussions included resources, time and having the confidence to be creative. A key point raised was the fine balance between ongoing ethical discussions and recruiting enough participants to complete projects in tight timelines.

Many thanks to Vicky Edwards for a thoroughly enjoyable workshop. I left with my own mini-case of ethics and lots of creative ideas to engage young people in ethical discussion about my work!

Intergenerational care in care homes: Caveats and considerations

Stephanie Green and Kate Howson from Swansea University delivered a workshop on Intergenerational Care in Care Homes in August this year. The session provided practitioners with the opportunity to learn more about intergenerational care and think about how they could overcome the potential challenges of supporting intergenerational activity in care homes.

Stephanie began the workshop by providing an overview of intergenerational care and the potential benefits. Intergenerational care was identified as being particularly important in the UK as we have one of the most segregated societies by age. The approach aims to provide purposeful, mutually beneficial activities that can enable generations to connect and learn from each other.

Most of the evidence on intergenerational care to date is anecdotal and further research is needed to explore what makes programmes effective for older adults, children and young people, staff and loved ones. It is also important to understand what makes a programme sustainable.

In groups, attendees discussed what their key considerations would be when planning and setting up intergenerational activity in a care home. Considerations included:

  • Staff training and support needs;
  • Carefully choosing activities and offering a tailored approach that appeals to residents and children;
  • Identifying a suitable environment;
  • Safeguarding;
  • Travel between the school and care home; and,
  • Funding.

In the second half of the workshop, Kate presented the aims and methods of her PhD project, as well as her initials reflections and messages for practice. The project aims to explore the impact of intergenerational care in South Wales. Kate is using a mixed methods approach to compare the outcomes of intergenerational programmes that are being delivered in care homes for at least six weeks with non-intergenerational programmes. The primary outcome measure for older adults is the effect that the programmes have on their quality of life.

Attendees discussed in groups how they would overcome the challenges that they had identified earlier in the workshop. Ideas and practical solutions were then shared, for example:

  • Involving participants (both older adults and children) in the planning stage;
  • Choosing activities based on the strengths and interests of the participants;
  • Engaging with schools that are in walking distance;
  • Involving community volunteers and family members;
  • Meeting regularly to reflect on how the programme is going; and
  • Sharing good practice with other care homes.

In the final part of the workshop, attendees were invited to share their experiences of implementing intergenerational programmes. Attendees reflected on what had gone well, the barriers they had faced and the lessons that they have learnt. For example, the proximity of the school to the care home was felt to be particularly important for success by one practitioner.

The session concluded by providing attendees with resources on tips for delivering intergenerational care and some useful reading.

Presentations and resources

Adopting Together – Working together to improve outcomes for children who wait

On 9th October 2019, practitioners, service providers, representatives of the Welsh Assembly, foster carers and adoptive parents braved the rain, parking meters and forewent the Wales vs Fiji game to find out about the Adopting Together service at an Exchange event in Cardiff.

Adopting Together is an innovative, child-focused adoption service. It is being led by a partnership between St David’s Children Society and Barnardo’s Cymru, with both organisations recruiting and supporting families for children who have been waiting for their forever families for over 12 months. The project is unique in its fundamentally collaborative nature, with the agencies below all involved in some capacity:

Adopting Together Infographic

Typically, the children who wait the longest for an adoptive family are children from BAME backgrounds, those who are placed for adoption with siblings and children who have disabilities, additional medical or emotional needs. The service was designed to hold these children in mind throughout the adoption process, with the voluntary sector identified as best placed to develop and deliver the Adopting Together service. 

Presentation Speaker

The Adoptive Together service has matched and placed 13 children since it started operating as a pilot in mid-2017. Wendy Keidan (Chief Executive of St David’s Children Society) and Singeta Kalhan-Gregory (service manager of Adopting Together) highlighted the four key components of Adopting Together, which incorporate extra levels of support and training at each stage of the adoption process:

  1. Enhanced Training and Recruitment
    • Child-specific recruitment (prospective adoptive parents are recruited for specific children currently within the Adopting Together service)
    • Adopter-led ‘Child Profiling Events’ where prospective adoptive parents meet foster carers and social workers to find out about specific children
    • Enhanced therapeutic training for prospective adoptive parents
  2. Team for the Child Meeting
    • Prior to matching 
    • Clinical psychology led
    • Brings together the network around the child (the important adults in a child’s life – those who know them best, with a child’s foster carer being particularly important)
    • Aims to produce a thorough understanding of a child and their needs (e.g. the impact of their early experiences, their psychological needs, but also what makes them happy or sad, what they like and dislike…)
  1. Therapeutic Transitions
    1. Therapeutically trained social workers provide transitions sessions with the child, their foster carer and their adoptive parent(s) throughout the child’s move
    2. Transition sessions are play-based (using elements of Theraplay and DDP) 
    3. Aim is to recognise the potential difficulty of the transition and to help the child develop a coherent narrative
  2. Psychological Consultation Meetings
    1. Three meetings with a clinical psychologist once the child has moved in with their adoptive parents
    2. Enables parents to reflect on the experience of parenting their child and work through any difficulties that have arisen
    3. A core principle is that difficulties at this stage are anticipated and considered a normal part of the transition to family life

Adoption Manager Angela Harris and Family Finding Social Worker Katy Stamp gave a practitioners’ perspective on experiences of the service, from the Vale, Valleys and Cardiff Regional Collaborative, which they reported usually has over 100 children waiting for their forever family, a significant proportion of whom have waited six months or more.  They welcomed the much-needed increased focus on the support needs of children, adoptive families and foster carers prior to, during and after a child’s transition from their foster family to their adoptive family, which Adopting Together is providing.

VVC had been the first Region to have their own Profiling Event, featuring twelve children, which Angela said had been a great success.  She judged the child-specific training that adopters received through Adopting Together to be central to achieving its aims.  Another crucial element was the opportunity for a child’s adopter and their foster carer to get to know one another and really work together to support the child.  Angela explained that this process was  facilitated by the Transitions Social Workers, and really gave the child ‘permission’ from their foster carer, the person they love and  trust and who knows them better than anyone else, to move on to their new family life.

Katy had described one such foster carer, Leanne, as ‘the inspiration’ in her foster child’s life.  Careful preparation through the Adopting Together Service had helped the child’s new adoptive parent to fully accept, and not feel rejected by, the child’s comments that the adopter was ‘not her favourite person’ – a role still occupied by Leanne.  Leanne herself spoke powerfully about her experiences of supporting the child to move on to adoption, and how Adopting Together had given her the tools to support the little girl through the process of adoption.  One year after the child’s move, Leanne was delighted to still have weekly contact.  She noted that the openness of the process of Adopting Together had helped provide the best outcome for the child, as well as for herself and for the adopter.  

Therapeutic social workers Judith Jones and Becky Couch talked about the transition work they are involved in as part of the Adopting Together Service. Transition sessions involve a series of games and stories that are fun for children, but also relational in nature and help with regulating emotions. For example, passing a dab of lotion around the circle or seeing who has the most warm or cold hands. The book ‘Not Again Little Owl’, about an owl who has lots of moves between different families, is often used. This forms the basis for recognising the big range of emotions, both good and bad, that children can experience through the transition to their adoptive family. 

Judith and Becky talked about their experiences of transition work being that children tend to feel safer to say how they feel. For example: “I didn’t choose you – I don’t want to be here, I want to be back with my foster carer!”, with the idea that this is far more ‘real’ than a honeymoon period in the early days of adoption, where these things may be felt by children but not said. The repetition, play and stories introduced through the transition work aim to create containment and emotional safety for children, as well as for the network who surround them.

As Professor Katherine Shelton and Coralie Merchant from Cardiff University explained, the service is underpinned by an evidence base provided by the Schools of Psychology and Business at Cardiff.  Data collected by the University demonstrate the service’s success. Adopters in the scheme were providing ‘exceptionally warm’ parenting, Professor Shelton commented. 

Gareth, an adoptive Dad, made a plea for increased funding from the Assembly to support the expansion of the service, a view echoed by a second adoptive parent attending the workshop, who stated that Adopting Together should be the Gold Standard for all adoptions – not just for ‘harder to place’ children. It’d be very hard to disagree.

Presentations and resources from the event

Giving adopted children and children previously looked after an equal chance in school

When Adoption UK asked nearly 2,000 adopted young people about their experiences of school in 2018, eight out of ten told us that they feel confused and worried at school. 81% of secondary-aged children agreed with the statement “Other children seem to enjoy school more than me” (Bridging the Gap 2018).

Education has long been a top priority for adoptive families. Year after year, Department for Education statistics in England show that adopted children fare considerably less well than their peers in statutory examinations. They are more likely to have special educational needs and disabilities, more likely to be excluded and less likely to move to positive destinations on leaving school.

Adoptive parents are in no doubt about the underlying causes of these difficulties. More than three quarters of respondents to Adoption UK’s Adoption Barometer survey (2019) agreed that their child’s adverse early experiences had impacted negatively on their ability to cope in school academically, socially and emotionally. While respondents were generally positive about teachers’ willingness to work with them, they expressed concerns about the level of training and resourcing that was available to education staff.

“School were as supportive as they could be, but they had very little understanding of the impact [of moving to a new family] on my child and how to support my child”.
School Parent Response

Trauma experienced by children, even before they have any conscious memory of it, can have severe and long-lasting impacts. The development that takes place in a child’s early months and years will form the foundation of all that is to come and, if it is unstable, the whole building will be affected.

Early neglect may impact physical development. Poorly-developed core strength will have a negative effect on fine and gross motor skills development. Lack of interaction inhibits the development of speech and language. Repeated traumatic experiences overload a child’s natural stress response mechanisms, leaving them unable to regulate their emotional state, and prone to flight-fight-freeze responses as cortisol floods their system.

The emotional impact of abuse and neglect, of moves through the care system and the eventual transition to a permanent family cannot be over-stated. Insecure early attachments can affect speech and language development, and lead to increased risk for problems such as anxiety, aggression, hyper-activity and poor executive functioning skills. Insecurely attached children are more likely to bully and be bullied, more likely to have behavioural difficulties at school, and less likely to be curious, self-confident and resilient.

The Trauma and Attachment-Aware Classroom’ published in 2019 by Jessica Kingsley Publishers is part of Adoption UK’s response to the concerns of parents and professionals about the challenges faced in education by children who have often had the worst possible start. Written by a former teacher and adoptive parent, the book provides a solid theoretical underpinning to the impact of trauma on a developing child, as well as hundreds of practical strategies for the classroom.

Firmly rooted in classroom practice, the book covers a range of common school situations, including managing transitions, school trips and theme days, unstructured times, and exams. Common behavioural challenges such as defiance, low-level disruptive behaviour, aggression, passivity, missing equipment and homework, are discussed within the context of trauma, with the possible causes, and practical strategies described for each scenario. The response to its publication has been positive both from parents and teachers.

Adoption UK continues to support parents and education professionals, and is committed to campaigning for better futures for adopted children and children previously looked-after. It is sadly the case that not all children have an equal start in life. It will take courage, commitment, training and resourcing to ensure that they all have an equal chance at school.

Rebecca Brooks
Adoption UK –


Adoption UK. 2018. Bridging the Gap. Available at

Adoption UK. 2019. Adoption Barometer. Available at

Brooks, R. 2019. The Trauma and Attachment-Aware Classroom. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.