DRILL Series 1: Disability research ethics – Lessons for research and practice

Introducing the Drill webinar series

In autumn 2020, ExChange Wales is delivering a series of webinars led by project partners from the Disability Research on Independent Living & Learning (DRILL). DRILL is a Four Nation Research Project which delivers the world’s first major research programme led by disabled people. The Programme is led by Disability Action NI in partnership with Disability Rights UK, Disability Wales and Inclusion Scotland.

DRILL promotes coproduction and collaboration between disabled people and their organisations, academia, research bodies and policy makers. Disabled people are empowered to have direct influence on decisions that impact on their independent living, particularly in relation to policies, legislation and services.

The programme has funded 32 coproduced research and pilot projects across the UK. The purpose of the projects is to find solutions about how disabled people can live as full citizens and take part socially, economically and politically.

Webinar 1: Disability research ethics – Lessons for research and practice

The DRILL Ethics Committee is Chaired by Professor Alison Koslowski and operated by a body of experts led by disabled people from across Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and England. Its membership includes representatives from academia and leaders from civil and civic society. The purpose of the Committee is to ensure that in all areas the DRILL ethos of co-production is upheld, also to support the DRILL Programme Board, the National Advisory Groups and the Central Research Committee.

This ExChange Wales webinar, the first in our DRILL series, will involve members of the Disability Ethics Committee sharing their experience and lessons for co-production in research and practice. There will be an opportunity to ask questions after the presentation. Our thanks to Disability Wales and the DRILL Ethics Committee for making this webinar possible.

Organiser of DRILL Series 1: Disability Ethics Committee

ExChange is an all-Wales network that brings together workers, researchers and those who use services to share experiences and expertise and learn from one another. Our aim is to improve social work and social care services by creating dialogue and ongoing relationships between people with different types of expertise.

We believe that research has most impact when it is part of an ongoing dialogue between researchers, practitioners and those with direct experiences of services. As such our focus is on bringing leading researchers into direct contact with workers, managers and those who use services so that we can learn from one another. In our first year we are running a programme of more than 20 events across Wales, from large national conferences to small seminars with leading experts.

ExChange was set up by the Cascade Centre at Cardiff University, but we are working closely with Swansea, Bangor and we hope other universities across Wales. Almost every local authority in Wales is a member, as well as key charities and other organisations. We hope this will allow us to provide a range of opportunities for discussion and collaboration with an ongoing focus on ensuring that our research makes a difference. If you would like more information or to be involved, please contact us.

Use of secure accommodation for welfare purposes in Wales

Secure accommodations are residential homes with approval to restrict the liberty of young people who are believed to be a serious risk to themselves or to others. Many young people are placed in secure accommodation for welfare reasons and there is little sign of this practice diminishing. This troubling situation is further complicated by a scarcity of secure placements in Wales which sees many young people being placed outside of Wales or having no bed in secure care due to a lack of availability.

At present there is little research evidence of what has led to this or what can be done to improve matters. To give better insight, a recent project commissioned by Social Care Wales and conducted by CASCADE at Cardiff University explored the experiences of young people from Wales prior to, during and following a referral to secure accommodation.

A recent webinar, presented by Dr Annie Williams (research lead) gave practitioners and managers an opportunity to hear about the study. The resources from the webinar are as follows:

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Webinar: Use of secure accommodation for welfare purposes in Wales

Date: Wednesday 9th September at 11.30am

Earlier this year due to lockdown, we were unable to run our workshop on the Use of secure accommodation for welfare purposes in Wales. ExChange Wales will now be running a free webinar in its place. We’ll be recording this webinar and it will be made available shortly after the live event. If you’re unable to join us on the day please visit the Cascade channel to view the webinar following the event.


Secure accommodations are residential homes with approval to restrict the liberty of young people aged 10 -17 years of age who are a serious risk to themselves or to others. While young people often enter secure (or alternative) accommodation via the criminal justice system, many are placed by social services for welfare reasons and there is little sign of this practice diminishing. This troubling situation is further complicated by a scarcity of secure placements in Wales which sees many young people being placed outside of Wales or having no bed in secure care due to a lack of availability.

At present there is little research evidence of what had led to this or what can be done to improve matters. To give better insight a recent project commissioned by Social Care Wales and conducted by CASCADE at Cardiff University explored the experiences of young people from Wales prior to, during and following a referral to secure accommodation. Many findings caused deep concern and led to a series of recommendations.

The workshop will give an opportunity for practitioners and managers to hear about the study and its findings, and use these as a platform for collaborative discussion of

  • The study recommendations
  • The extent to which the recommendations map onto practice experience and whether they would profit from amendment
  • Barriers envisaged when implementing the recommendations
  • How such barriers could be overcome

Presented by:
CASCADE: Children’s Social Care Research and Development Centre, Cardiff University

Related Link(s)
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From identification to support: Assessing and improving services for young carers

Date: April 30, 2020
Please note: this event has been postponed

Family carers are sometimes described as an ‘invisible army’ – a large group of citizens who bear a significant proportion of the national social care strategy. Child carers, commonly known as ‘young carers’, are an under-recognised and particularly vulnerable group within this ‘army’. Current policy and practice on recognising and supporting young carers is variable across Welsh Local Authorities, and the level or nature of intervention activity bears further examination nationally. This group has significant, diverse needs and disparate experiences of personal disruption depending on their circumstances and level of care required for their family members. Education and health could offer substantial support to these children and young people but research shows that they currently struggle to effectively identify and support them, in part due to a lack of clear guidance and strategic planning, and most young carers report difficulties in being recognised for the valuable work that they do. This workshop focuses on sharing knowledge from recent Cardiff University research and policy insight and strategy from national charity Carer’s Trust Wales. We facilitate practitioner-led discussion on common and differing experiences in trying to best support young carers, and co-develop approaches and recommendations to improve Welsh provision. No child or young person should be disadvantaged in their lives by being a young carer. This workshop offers the opportunity to add your experience and expertise to the national conversation around how we can best see, listen to, and support them better.

Presented by:
Faaiza Bashir (Carer’s Trust Wales), Edward Janes (Cardiff University), Jen Lyttleton-Smith (Cardiff University)

Related Link(s)
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ExChange Wales brings leading researchers together with practitioners and service users to share expertise, research evidence and care experiences.

Through our conferences, workshops, lectures and seminars, ExChange provides free, high-quality training to support the ongoing development of social care professionals across Wales. Attracting leading national speakers, together we learn and advise on research, impacting both policy and practice. Our events and resources enrich skills while foregrounding the lived experience of care-experienced people.

We have a range of ways that you can work with ExChange. If you wish to host an ExChange workshop, webinar, podcast or blog, simply contact us.

Upcoming events

Improving experiences of young homeless people in supported accommodation

Young homeless people are widely considered to be one of the most vulnerable groups in society, due to their diverse and potentially complex needs and experiences. However, while young people experiencing street homelessness routinely receive academic attention, young people living in supported accommodation and barriers that they face, are often overlooked by research.

In June 2017, funding was secured to run a short project which enabled a group of young homeless people living in supported accommodation, to travel to the Welsh Assembly and present some of their experiences to Assembly Members. This workshop will provide an overview of the event and explore some of the key issues that the participants raised. It will discuss themes including barriers to mental health services, nutrition, education and employment and the significant impact that these issues can have on young homeless people both short and long-term. Following this, the practitioners will be able to participate in a creative and interactive session, which will provide an opportunity to suggest new approaches and/or interventions that could tackle these barriers and improve the experiences and lives of young people living in supported accommodation.

Related Link(s)

Register for the event

The ‘Case of Ethics’: Using creative methods for ethical research practice

ExChange recently welcomed Dr Victoria Edwards to run a practitioner workshop on her ‘Case of Ethics’ research, using creative methods for ethical research practice. The interactive workshop explored participants understanding of ethics in research, how Vicky approached this in her own research, the practicalities of using creative approaches in research and finally for participants to create their own ‘mini-case’.

On the 10th of September ExChange welcomed Dr Victoria Edwards to run a practitioner workshop on her ‘Case of Ethics’, using creative methods for ethical research practice. The interactive workshop explored participants understanding of ethics in research, how Vicky approached this in her own research, the practicalities of using creative approaches in research and finally for participants to create their own ‘mini-case’.

The second group activity involved defining what is meant by consent, confidentiality and anonymity. Participants were asked to consider when they became familiar with these terms and in what context. Discussions around this topic where generated when participants shared their ideas across the room in a ‘snowball fight’. Crumpling up their definitions on paper and throwing them to another table to be read out. Some of the key messages from this discussion highlighted that there can’t be an assumed understanding of these term especially when working with young people.

Having set the scene, Vicky moved on to talk about her own research and how she approached ethics. Her study explored young people’s video game culture across two special schools, one a mainstream school where the young people were part of a nurture class and the other at a college. All the young people involved in her study had some level of additional learning requirements. The study itself used a range of creative methods including, doll creation, video production and t-shirt design as well as some more traditional methods such as a whole school survey and focus group workshop.

When developing her ethical approach to research with this cohort of young people, Vicky drew on wider literature in this area including the work of Professor Emma Renold and Dr Dawn Mannay both Cardiff University researchers. She focused on creative methodologies where ethics are not an ‘add on’ to the process. It is with this in mind that the ‘Case of Ethics’ was invented. Using a second-hand vintage travelling salespersons suitcase with many different compartments, Vicky was able to fill it with objects to start conversations with young people about what they were getting involved with.

The objects included a voice changer, mask, tracing paper and audio recorder. Having the case in the room enabled the young people (and the researcher) to always be aware of the nature of consent and refer to any ideas that were discussed, touched and felt when introducing the work. This was also an engaging and fun way to explain to participants why she was recording information and what would happen to it.

Examples of how the objects reflected conversations about consent and the research;

  • Voices changer: Do you enjoy talking? Who will hear your voices? Why do we alter voices? What is anonymity?
  • Masks: Why do we protect your identity? What happened to the information collected about you?
  • Tracing paper: Why would we want to obscure an imagine in a research project? Where are images kept? Why won’t researchers identify your school.
  • Audio recorder: Why is your voice being recorded? Am I allowed to stop the recording? How do I feel about being recorded?

Most children loved using tactile materials but other didn’t like them at all – what works for one person can be very different for another. The key was showing understanding and being open to discussions. As an example, using the case highlighted the wished of one of the young people named Terry. Terry had a physical reaction to the felt in the case, he jumped back from the table saying, ‘I can’t touch that’. Whilst most of the young people really enjoyed playing with the voice changer Terry though it was horrible. These reactions allowed Vicky to talk to Terry about how he felt about being recorded and taking part in certain activities. She found out that he was fine with recording and transcribing the interview but didn’t want to hear it back, and later on he didn’t want to have his voice included in any video work. Vicky highlights that discussing these issues with objects adds real meaning than merely trying to explain the process may miss.

Next it was time for workshop participants to start thinking about a project they were working on and coming up with some objects to put into their own mini-case of ethics. Participants were tasked to draw or write on a piece of paper an object/objects that could be used to introduce their project or activity. This was put into their mini-case and shared with the person next to them. From here their partner would spend some time coming up with some questions based on the object and thinking about what the project might be about. This was an opportunity for participants to try out developing a creative representation related to their project and start reflecting on how things are introduced or explained. Vicky also encouraged participants to consider how it might feel be exploring projects and activities in this way.

Finally, the workshop concluded with discussions around the barriers to ethical encounters and coming up with solutions. Some of the discussions included resources, time and having the confidence to be creative. A key point raised was the fine balance between ongoing ethical discussions and recruiting enough participant to complete projects in tight timelines.

Many thanks to Vicky Edwards for a thoroughly enjoyable workshop. I left with my own mini-case of ethics and lots of creative ideas to engage young people in ethical discussion about my work!

Adopting Together – Working together to improve outcomes for children who wait

On 9th October 2019, practitioners, service providers, representatives of the Welsh Assembly, foster carers and adoptive parents braved the rain, parking metres and forewent the Wales vs Fiji game to find out about the Adopting Together service at an Exchange event in Cardiff.

Adopting Together is an innovative, child-focused adoption service. It is being led by a partnership between St David’s Children Society and Barnardo’s Cymru, with both organisations recruiting and supporting families for children who have been waiting for their forever families for over 12 months. The project is unique in its fundamentally collaborative nature, with the agencies below all involved in some capacity:

Typically, the children who wait the longest for an adoptive family are children from BAME backgrounds, those who are placed for adoption with siblings and children who have disabilities, additional medical or emotional needs. The service was designed to hold these children in mind throughout the adoption process, with the voluntary sector identified as best placed to develop and deliver the Adopting Together service.

The Adoptive Together service has matched and placed 13 children since it started operating as a pilot in mid-2017. Wendy Keidan (Chief Executive of St David’s Children Society) and Singeta Kalhan-Gregory (service manager of Adopting Together) highlighted the four key components of Adopting Together, which incorporate extra levels of support and training at each stage of the adoption process:

Enhanced Training and Recruitment

  • Child-specific recruitment (prospective adoptive parents are recruited for specific children currently within the Adopting Together service)
  • Adopter-led ‘Child Profiling Events’ where prospective adoptive parents meet foster carers and social workers to find out about specific children
  • Enhanced therapeutic training for prospective adoptive parents

Team for the Child Meeting

  • Prior to matching
  • Clinical psychology led
  • Brings together the network around the child (the important adults in a child’s life – those who know them best, with a child’s foster carer being particularly important)
  • Aims to produce a thorough understanding of a child and their needs (e.g. the impact of their early experiences, their psychological needs, but also what makes them happy or sad, what they like and dislike…)

Therapeutic Transitions

  • Therapeutically trained social workers provide transitions sessions with the child, their foster carer and their adoptive parent(s) throughout the child’s move
  • Transition sessions are play-based (using elements of Theraplay and DDP)
  • Aim is to recognise the potential difficulty of the transition and to help the child develop a coherent narrative

Psychological Consultation Meetings

  • Three meetings with a clinical psychologist once the child has moved in with their adoptive parents
  • Enables parents to reflect on the experience of parenting their child and work through any difficulties that have arisen
  • A core principle is that difficulties at this stage are anticipated and considered a normal part of the transition to family life

Adoption Manager Angela Harris and Family Finding Social Worker Katy Stamp gave a practitioners’ perspective on experiences of the service, from the Vale, Valleys and Cardiff Regional Collaborative, which they reported usually has over 100 children waiting for their forever family, a significant proportion of whom have waited six months or more. They welcomed the much-needed increased focus on the support needs of children, adoptive families and foster carers prior to, during and after a child’s transition from their foster family to their adoptive family, which Adopting Together is providing.

VVC had been the first Region to have their own Profiling Event, featuring twelve children, which Angela said had been a great success. She judged the child-specific training that adopters received through Adopting Together to be central to achieving its aims. Another crucial element was the opportunity for a child’s adopter and their foster carer to get to know one another and really work together to support the child. Angela explained that this process was facilitated by the Transitions Social Workers, and really gave the child ‘permission’ from their foster carer, the person they love and trust and who knows them better than anyone else, to move on to their new family life.

Katy had described one such foster carer, Leanne, as ‘the inspiration’ in her foster child’s life. Careful preparation through the Adopting Together Service had helped the child’s new adoptive parent to fully accept, and not feel rejected by, the child’s comments that the adopter was ‘not her favourite person’ – a role still occupied by Leanne. Leanne herself spoke powerfully about her experiences of supporting the child to move on to adoption, and how Adopting Together had given her the tools to support the little girl through the process of adoption. One year after the child’s move, Leanne was delighted to still have weekly contact. She noted that the openness of the process of Adopting Together had helped provide the best outcome for the child, as well as for herself and for the adopter.

Therapeutic social workers Judith Jones and Becky Couch talked about the transition work they are involved in as part of the Adopting Together Service. Transition sessions involve a series of games and stories that are fun for children, but also relational in nature and help with regulating emotions. For example, passing a dab of lotion around the circle or seeing who has the most warm or cold hands. The book ‘Not Again Little Owl’, about an owl who has lots of moves between different families, is often used. This forms the basis for recognising the big range of emotions, both good and bad, that children can experience through the transition to their adoptive family.

Judith and Becky talked about their experiences of transition work being that children tend to feel safer to say how they feel. For example: “I didn’t choose you – I don’t want to be here, I want to be back with my foster carer!”, with the idea that this is far more ‘real’ than a honeymoon period in the early days of adoption, where these things may be felt by children but not said. The repetition, play and stories introduced through the transition work aim to create containment and emotional safety for children, as well as for the network who surround them.

As Professor Katherine Shelton and Coralie Merchant from Cardiff University explained, the service is underpinned by an evidence base provided by the Schools of Psychology and Business at Cardiff. Data collected by the University demonstrate the service’s success. Adopters in the scheme were providing ‘exceptionally warm’ parenting, Professor Shelton commented.

Gareth, an adoptive Dad, made a plea for increased funding from the Assembly to support the expansion of the service, a view echoed by a second adoptive parent attending the workshop, who stated that Adopting Together should be the Gold Standard for all adoptions – not just for ‘harder to place’ children.

It’d be very hard to disagree.

Links for the presentations and resources from the event:

Intergenerational Care in Care Homes: Caveats and Considerations

Stephanie Green and Kate Howson from Swansea University delivered a workshop on Intergenerational Care in Care Homes in August this year. The session provided practitioners with the opportunity to learn more about intergenerational care and think about how they could overcome the potential challenges of supporting intergenerational activity in care homes.

Stephanie began the workshop by providing an overview of intergenerational care and the potential benefits. Intergenerational care was identified as being particularly important in the UK as we have one of the most segregated societies by age. The approach aims to provide purposeful, mutually beneficial activities that can enable generations to connect and learn from each other.

Most of the evidence on intergenerational care to date is anecdotal and further research is needed to explore what makes programmes effective for older adults, children and young people, staff and loved ones. It is also important to understand what makes a programme sustainable.

In groups, attendees discussed what their key considerations would be when planning and setting up intergenerational activity in a care home. Considerations included:

  • Staff training and support needs;
  • Carefully choosing activities and offering a tailored approach that appeals to residents and children;
  • Identifying a suitable environment;
  • Safeguarding;
  • Travel between the school and care home; and
  • Funding.

In the second half of the workshop, Kate presented the aims and methods of her PhD project, as well as her initials reflections and messages for practice. The project aims to explore the impact of intergenerational care in South Wales. Kate is using a mixed methods approach to compare the outcomes of intergenerational programmes that are being delivered in care homes for at least six weeks with non-intergenerational programmes. The primary outcome measure for older adults is the effect that the programmes have on their quality of life.

Attendees discussed in groups how they would overcome the challenges that they had identified earlier in the workshop. Ideas and practical solutions were then shared, for example:

  • Involving participants (both older adults and children) in the planning stage;
  • Choosing activities based on the strengths and interests of the participants;
  • Engaging with schools that are in walking distance;
  • Involving community volunteers and family members;
  • Meeting regularly to reflect on how the programme is going; and
  • Sharing good practice with other care homes.

In the final part of the workshop, attendees were invited to share their experiences of implementing intergenerational programmes. Attendees reflected on what had gone well, the barriers they had faced and the lessons that they have learnt. For example, the proximity of the school to the care home was felt to be particularly important for success by one practitioner.

The session concluded by providing attendees with resources on tips for delivering intergenerational care and some useful reading.